Arain History

                              Arain History

The Arain are an agricultural caste settled mainly in the Punjab (Pakistan), with significant numbers also in the Sindh [citation needed] (Pakistan). They are chiefly associated with farming (market gardening), traditionally being small landowners or zamindars.

Word Arain

Many of the Arains of Punjab claim descent from Rai Jaj, the grandson of Lava, the founder of Lahore. Jaj was ruler of Sarsa territory and on that account was called a Rae; and his descendants became known as Rain, hence Arain the Jalandhar Arains claim descent from Rai Bhuta, fifth in descent from Raja Karan (q.v.), and were settled in Uch (in Multan). Bhutta is one of the important clan of the Arains which is also shared by Rajputs and the Jatts. Bhutto is another variant of Bhutta. The Arains of Sahiwal point out that they were Surajbansi Rajputs, originally settled around Delhi. Arains of Ghaggar valley are also said to have been formerly Rajputs living on the Panjnad near Multan. The Arains of Hissar also claim Rajput descent.

Some Arains also claim Aryan descent from the ancient Iranians. A large section of people in Saraswati river basin, in both India and Pakistan, still call themselves Aryans. Some say that the Arain are the descendants of the nomadic Aryans who had invaded North India around 1500 BCE. Some people of Pakistan like to believe that the Arain were the Iranian tribal people with agriculture and sheep rearing profession who came to and settled in North India. They derive term Arain from Arya => Aryan => Arayan = Arain. Numerous Punjabis, both in India and Pakistan, claim descent from the Indo-Iranian Aryans. Ex-President of Pakistan Zia-ul-Haq was Arain.

Some writers like Ahmed Abdulla of Pakistan and Syed Abdul Quddus of India etc have distorted Rai Jaj of Mr Purser to Rai Chajju and, have also connected him erroneously to Ujjain in Malwa, rather than the Sarsa of the Arain traditions. Further, both these writers have also erroneously related Rai Chajju (Rai Jaj of Mr Purser) to Raja Karan, the supposed ancestor of the Kambohs/Kambojs of Jalandhar (Punjab), but curiously enough, they have not furnished any evidence to prove the relationship between Raja Karan and Rae Jaj ( or Rai Chajju?)

They tend to speak different languages, including but not limited to Urdu, Punjabi, Pothohari, Seraiki, Sindhi, Hindko, and Pushto depending on their place of residence.
The Arain are overwhelmingly, if not entirely, Muslim. The only specific data found on the subject is from the Joshua Project, which shows them to be 97% Muslim a proportion much greater than the other agricultural castes of the Punjab (the Jats, Gujjars and Rajputs, which are 53%, 55%, and 31% Muslim, respectively).

Some believe that Arain are descendants of Arab invaders to the Indian subcontinent. They think Arain came from Areeha (Jericho, Israel) with Muhammad Bin Qasim in 92 Hijri (711 AD).Muhammad Hayaat Madni was a Commander in Muhammad Bin Qasim's Army - 711 AD as held in the family tree of famous Arain Mian Family Baghbanpura. Reference to their lineage is made by the famous Indian Historian of Islam, Akbar Shah Khan Najeebabadi, who declared that they entered India thru Debal, Sindh with Muhammad Bin Qasim. He declared them Areehai from Arreha (Jericho) which was Punjabized with a nasal sound to Arain. These highly-specific claims are nevertheless viewed by some as a desire for claiming an unbroken practice of Islam through the ages, for the sake of current prestige.

Destiny of the Tribe Raeen
Muhammad Sharif, a UK based Indian historian, writes in "Destiny of the Tribe Raeen" that they started coming to Sindh (Iraq-i-Ajam) in 46 Hijri (666 AD) at the end of Orthodox Caliphate. They belonged to the Banu Sama (Saama or Samma) sub-tribe of Banu 'Amir (Aamir or Amer) tribe of the larger clan Aal-i-Adnan (The House of Adnan) through Hawazin. This Sama dynasty had a long list of Rulers in Sindh, Multan, Uch and Kach, 14 of whom became famous. It had three distinct off shoots and some historical tribes which are mistaken to be local Balochs or Dravidian Sindhis such as Zardari, and Hangaro also belonged to this sub-tribe. Raeen and not Arain are the people who took their name from famous Sama ruler Jam Raeena. Jam Raeena (Raeedun or Raideena) also known as Mulla Raeena was grandson of Sultan Awadh who was son of Jahankaran from Abreeha sub-caste of Sama. He ruled Kachh and then Sindh. There are 9 distinct sub-castes of Samma tribe which are specific only to Raeen till this date viz Nain, Sair, Qadria, Chachar, Chanan, Bahmani, Miana, Laman, and Khambrah. These are pure Sarsawal Raeen. Other Samma sub-castes are variably known as Multani Raeen or Baloch or Local Sindhi or even Abro viz Jhumrah, Zohabdari, Bali, Halpota, Phulpota, Sarangi and Hangaro. Sub-sub-castes are however in hundreds and one can find from ones revenue record.

There are four or five main rankings (not sub-castes) which refer to the wealth held by the Arain namely Mian, Malik,Chaudery and Mehar or Mahar. The rankings among Arain are not birthrights (such as those among other castes) and one can freely ascend/descend according to changes in personal wealth. Arain have multitudes of gotras, or sub-clans, many of them bear names that indicate soldiering as a profession. For example: Ghalar, Gahgeer and Goheer (ferocious horse of armoured corps), Gatku (fencer), Kavali (soldier patrolling while others rest), Basroo (observation post), Bahman (brave, uncontrollable or insurmountable), Bhaila (alms-keeper who walks with the commander when he is giving away alms after a victory), Daulay (those who got land in return for military services), Khatora (spy), Ramay (archers), Rattay (bloody, red, ferocious fighters), Ramday (red -eyed soldiers), Labanay (an army column equipped with batons), Jatalay (victors), Qutub Shahi: (soldiers or their offspring who accompanied Qutubuddin Aibak), Sappal (marksmen), Bahalwan (driver of a chariot), Mudh and Mundh logisticians supplying logistics and reinforcement to the army), Teerandaz (archers), Katarband (users of katar, a weapon used by ancient armies, Wagi (Owner of large herds of animals especially buls/cows), Spal or Aspal (possessing horses from Persian Asp meaning horse) and Bhutta/Bhutto (dwellers of high places).

Blood Group
A study by the Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences on blood types of the major ethnicities in the Punjab showed that O is the most common blood group (among all ethnicities), except among the Arain where B is most common, the difference being statistically significant. Whilst not proof of non-local ancestry, it does illustrate a difference between the Arain and the other castes inhabiting the Punjab. More research would be needed to determine in greater detail the caste's migratory provenance.

The Arain during the British Raj
The Arain land holders should not be confused with the more gentrified zamindars such as the feudal Rajput landlords of vast holdings. Polo, partridge shoots and tea parties were therefore not associated attributes. Neither were the more negative and profligate practises such as "...dancing girls, drunken evenings listening to poetry, or numerous marriages...". When the British wanted land developed in the Punjab after its annexation, Arain were brought in to cultivate lands around the cities, forming irrigated colonies[30]. The Arain were so favoured for their "hard work, frugality and sense of discipline". Subsequent development of towns and cities and increasing urbanisation resulted in the value of the land settled by Arain to rise significantly, and Arain families thus flourished. Education was prioritised with the new found wealth and the Arain came to dominate the legal profession amongst urban Punjabi Muslims. Many used law to enter politics.

The Arain were classified as a "non-martial race" by the British, a classification deemed arbitrary and based on prejudices prevalent at the time (see martial race). Actually Arain was a much better martial race as is evident from their history. For example Shah Abdul Qadir Ludhianvi, a great freedom fighter, was able to drive out the British from Ludhiana, during the 1857 War of Independence which the British Colonialist prefer to call mutiny. Interestingly he was one of the few Muslim fighters to have taken up arms against the Colonialists. He took his forces to Panipat and from there to Chandni Chowk in Delhi, but was defeated and martyred fighting. Maulana Sani's theory was that because Shah Abdul Qadir was an Arain the British later put a ban on that tribe from being employed in their Indian army.

Either Tughlaq or Mahmood Ghaznavi sent a horse-mounted army comprising of Awan and Arain from Jalandhar and Anbala under the command of Imam Ali-ul-Haq, an Arain,to capture the rioting town of Sakala near Jammu. Imam captured the town and converted many people to Islam. The town was named Aspalkot which changed to Spalkot and later Sialkot. Imam was martyred in a skirmish and buried in the city. The people who came with him were called Aspal or Spal arain. This sub-tribe also settled in Gujrat and Wazirabad.arain in boloch in daddar in bolochistan.